* Computer technology refers to any kind of information processing that is done on a computer. Most information technology systems are characterized by the ability to convert information from one form (language, images, sounds, etc.) to another form (data structures, computer programs, etc.). Information technology includes applications such as personal computing, telecommunications, information systems, information retrieval software.
* Software refers to any set of instructions or procedures designed to do a particular task. Software can be used in many different ways and is a very broad term. Examples of software include desktop publishing software, spreadsheet programs, word processing software, database management software, image processing software, etc.
* Communication technology refers to the transfer of information over some medium or between two or more users. This is used in the context of different communication systems. Examples of communication systems include voice communication systems, data transmission systems, network communications systems, information systems, digital subscriber lines, telephone networks, fax machines, Internet systems, etc. These systems are usually categorized by the type of information they carry. Examples of common types of communication systems are telecommunication systems, radio communication systems, television broadcasting systems, radio systems, data transmission systems used in teleconferencing systems, computer networks, internet telephony systems, etc.
* Computer hardware refers to any machine used to store information on a computer. A computer may be described as a machine that has a central processing unit (CPU) and memory which are connected to a modem and a network. The CPU may be used to perform tasks such as data input, data output, input and output, and computer processes. The CPU may also be used to provide input to the user. Examples of computer hardware include keyboard, monitors, processors, hard drives, printers, scanners, etc.
* Telecommunication technology refers to the transfer of information from one place to another using the Internet. This information may be in the form of voice calls, text messages, audio files, images, or graphics. This is sometimes used as a sub-category of information technology. Examples of communication systems used in telecommunication are cellular phone networks, public switched telephone networks, analog telephone networks, IP networks, voice over IP networks, digital subscriber lines, etc.
* Information retrieval refers to the ability to retrieve information that is stored on other devices, either online or offline. Examples of information retrieval systems include databases, web search engines, e-mail services, file and document storage systems, online bookmarks, video games, instant messaging systems, social networking sites, digital content, etc. Some examples of data retrieval systems include white pages, white sheets, index cards, spreadsheets, paper catalogues, database management systems, electronic mailing services, e-mail services, and online database services.
In addition to these three, information technology encompasses the field of information science, including areas like information systems design, information systems architecture, computer systems analysis, multimedia, information security, information dissemination and information assurance, databases management, Internet access, human-computer interaction and knowledge representation, computer systems engineering, computer-assisted design and development, e-business systems and other areas that deal with information systems. Information technology may also encompass fields that are related but not directly concerned with information technology such as information assurance, e-commerce, computer systems, e-marketing, database and information processing systems, Internet marketing and business intelligence, Internet marketing and sales systems, e-government, Internet marketing strategies, etc.
The field of information technology is evolving rapidly. New technologies and applications continue to emerge every year, which will continue to create new fields of specialization. A major goal of information technology is to make information available to people in a more efficient manner. This will allow individuals to do more things using less resources and in a shorter period of time. In the past, information technology required large amounts of computing power to operate.
Information technology can be described as the science and technology that help to provide the tools for the development and implementation of information systems, including the analysis of the systems, maintenance of the systems, and security of the systems. It also provides the means by which users can interact with the information systems. These tools are also used to deliver the information from the system to people, organizations, and in some cases to the environment.
Information technology is an ever changing field and there is always room for improvement. As new fields of information technology emerge, the industry will experience tremendous growth.